The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek:
Morocco —58 With the marriage of the heirs apparent to their respective thrones Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a personal union that most scholars view as the foundation of the Spanish monarchy.
Their dynastic alliance was important for a number of reasons, ruling jointly over a large aggregation of territories although not in a unitary fashion. Ferdinand of Aragon was particularly concerned with expansion in France and Italy, as well as conquests in North Africa.
The Kingdom of Portugal had an advantage over the rest of Iberian, having earlier retaken territory from the Muslims. Portugal completed Christian reconquest in and settling the kingdom's boundaries. Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.
Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in and first major settlement in the New World inPortugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillaswhich gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain.
Columbus unexpectedly encountered the western hemisphere, populated by peoples he named "Indians. Managing the expanding empire became an administrative issue.
It had conquered Melilla inand further expansionism policy in North Africa was developed during the regency of Ferdinand the Catholic in Castile, stimulated by the Cardinal Cisneros.
Several towns and outposts in the North African coast were conquered and occupied by Castile: Tripoli was taken on 24—25 July, the feast of St. Jamesprotector of Spain; the claim was made that 10, Muslims were killed and many captured.
The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: The Zeiyanid sultans of Tlemcen quickly submitted to Spanish protectorate, and the two powers soon became allies. Cardinal Cisneros converted two mosques to Catholic use, and restored and expanded the town's fortifications.
Oran, like other principal Algerian ports, was forced to accept a presidio military outpost ; it became a major naval base, a garrison city armed with traffic-commanding cannons and harquebuses. For about years, Oran's inhabitants were virtually held captive in their fortress walls, ravaged by famine and plague; soldiers, too, were irregularly fed and paid.
The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: As King of AragonFerdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy; these conflicts became the center of Ferdinand's foreign policy as king.
In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the midth century.
After the death of Queen Isabella inand her exclusion of Ferdinand from a further role in Castile, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix incementing an alliance with France.Shooting An Elephant. An essay by George Orwell, first published in the literary magazine New Writing in In Moulmein, in Lower Burma, I was hated by large numbers of people – the only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me.
Translation of essay | Each section centers around a theme and is introduced with a short essay by one of the editors. Home English to Spanish essay. Translation of essay in Spanish: essay ensayo, n. Spanish. Latin American Spanish.
Pronunciation /ˈɛseɪ/ /ˈɛseɪ/ noun. 1. (literary composition) ensayo masculine.
Example sentences. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. In one essay, he turns his fire on the prim consensus that political partisanship is a bad thing.
Times, Sunday Times () It is said that students need to be reminded to go to lectures and write essays. Spanish and English Empires During much of the ’s European nations began efforts to colonize the Americas (or the New World).
Their goal, as stated in The Enduring Vision, was not only to seek wealth and power but they also wanted to make it their mission to introduce Christianity and “civilization” to the “savages” and “pagans” (p. 29). Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present (Modern Library Chronicles) [Anthony Pagden] on webkandii.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Written by one of the world’s foremost historians of human migration, Peoples and Empires is the story of the great European empires—the Roman.