The crusades paper

English minister and Bible commentator Biography Matthew Henry was born in in a Welsh farmhouse close to the border of England and Wales. A few weeks earlier, his father Philip Henry had been ejected from his ministry in the Established Church. Along with nearly two thousand other ministers, Philip Henry had refused to submit to the Act of Uniformity, which had come into effect on 24 August and was radically opposed to all that Puritans like Henry stood for. Philip thus left his charge at Worthenbury, Shropshire, and took up residence a few miles away at Iscoed, Flintshire.

The crusades paper

See Article History Alternative Titles: The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan.

Both the geographic area designated by the name and the political status of it have changed over the course of some three millennia. The region or at least a part of it is also known as the Holy Land and is held sacred among JewsChristiansand Muslims.

Since the 20th century it has been the object of conflicting claims of Jewish and Arab national movements, and the conflict has led to prolonged violence and, in several instances, open warfare.

The word Palestine derives from Philistia, the name given by Greek writers to the land of the Philistineswho in the 12th century bce occupied a small pocket of land on the southern coast, between modern Tel Aviv—Yafo and Gaza.

After Roman times the name had no official status until after World War I and the end of rule by the Ottoman Empirewhen it was adopted for one of the regions mandated to Great Britain; in addition to an area roughly comprising present-day Israel and the West Bank, the mandate included the territory east of the Jordan River now constituting the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan, which Britain placed under an administration separate from that of Palestine immediately after receiving the mandate for the territory.

The name Palestine has long been in popular use as a general term to denote a traditional region, but this usage does not imply precise boundaries. In contemporary understanding, however, Palestine is generally defined as a region bounded on the east by the Jordan River, on the north by the border between modern Israel and Lebanon, on the west by the Mediterranean Sea including the coast of Gazaand on the south by the Negevwith its southernmost extension reaching the Gulf of Aqaba.

The strategic importance of the area is immense: Settlement depends closely on water, which is almost never abundant. Precipitation, which arrives in the cool half of the year, decreases in amount in general from north to south and from the coast inland.

Perennial rivers are few, and the shortage of water is aggravated by the porous nature of the limestone rocks over much of the country. For further reading on the political units most closely associated with Palestine, see the articles EgyptIsraelJordanand Lebanon.

Land Coastal lowlands of varying widths front the Mediterranean. Farther southward the lowland opens out rapidly into the Plain of Sharonabout 8 miles 13 km wide and extending south to the latitude of Tel Aviv—Yafo.

Once covered with marshes, the Sharon plain was reclaimed in the post-Exilic and Hellenistic period and is now a settled area. Fields and fruit groves are laid out between scattered sandstone ridges, on which villages have grown up. South of the spur of low hills that approaches the coast at about Yafo Jaffathe plain widens into a fertile region known in biblical times as Philistia, a district of orange groves, irrigated orchards, and fields of grain.

Covered with rich basaltic soils washed down from the Galilean hills, Esdraelon is important both for its fertility and for the great highway it opens from the Mediterranean to the lands across the Jordan. The hill country of Galilee is better-watered and more thickly wooded than that of Samaria or Judaea.

The crusades paper

North of the Bet Netofa Valley Plain of Asochis is Upper Galilee, with elevations of 4, feet 1, metresa scrub-covered limestone plateau that is thinly populated.

To the south, Lower Galilee—with its highest peak, Mount Tabor 1, feet [ metres] —is a land of east-west ridges enclosing sheltered vales like that of Nazareth, with rich basaltic soils.

Samariathe region of the ancient kingdom of Israel, is a hilly district extending from the Plain of Esdraelon to the latitude of Ramallah. The city of Jerusalem has expanded rapidly along the mountain ridges.

Early Bronze Age

It is separated from the coastal plain by a longitudinal fosse and a belt of low hills of soft chalky limestone, about 5 to 8 miles 8 to 13 km wide, known as Ha-Shefela.

The Judaean plateau falls abruptly to the Jordan Valleywhich is approached with difficulty along the wadis Kelt and Mukallik. The Jordan Valley is a deep rift valley that varies in width from 1.

The Negeva desertlike region, is triangular in shape with the apex at the south. It extends from Beersheba in the north, where 8 inches mm or more of precipitation falls annually and grain is grown, to the port city of Elat on the Red Seain the extremely arid south.

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It is bounded by the Sinai Peninsula on the west and the northern extension of the Great Rift Valley on the east. William Charles Brice Rashid Ismail Khalidi People The social geography of modern Palestine, especially the area west of the Jordan River, has been greatly affected by the dramatic political changes and wars that have brought this small region to the attention of the world.

In the early 21st century, Israeli Jews constituted roughly half of the population west of the Jordan, while Arabs —Muslim, Christian, and Druze—and other smaller minorities accounted for the rest. The Jewish population is increasingly composed of persons born in Israel itself, although millions of immigrants have arrived since the founding of the State of Israel in The Arab population is descended from Arabs who lived in the area during the mandate period and, in most cases, for centuries before that time.

The majority of both Jews and Arabs are now urbanized. According to Jewish nationalists ZionistsJudaism constitutes a basis for both religious and national ethnic identity. Palestinian nationalists usually emphasize that their shared identity as Arabs transcends the religious diversity of their community: The Arab majority resident in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and the still larger number of Arab Palestinians living outside the area many in nearby countries such as Lebanon have strongly opposed Israeli control and have feared an eventual annexation of the West Bank and Gaza by Israel.

Most Jewish Israeli settlers support such an annexation and think those lands properly belong to Israel. In Arab concerns were partially assuaged when Israel completed its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and handed over control of the territory to the Palestinians.

Both Zionists and Palestinian Arab nationalists have at various times since the 19th century claimed rightful possession of the area west of the Jordan River.Mar 01,  · Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz doesn't want to run for the White House. But, buoyed by his company's surging performance, the billionaire wants to use his caffeinated perch to change American discourse.

This is an incomplete listing of some very bad things that happened before the 20th Century. I've scoured the history books and collected most of the major atrocities that anyone has bothered to enumerate. However, just because an event is missing from these pages doesn't mean that it wasn't very bloody.

Europe, second smallest of the world’s continents, composed of the westward-projecting peninsulas of Eurasia (the great landmass that it shares with Asia) and occupying nearly one-fifteenth of the world’s total land webkandii.com is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south (west to east) by the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Kuma.

Islam and Europe Timeline ( A.D.)

Islam and Europe Timeline ( A.D.) After removing a Roman temple from the site (possibly the Temple of Aphrodite built by Hadrian), Constantine I has the Church of the Holy Sepulcher constructed in Jerusalem. Built around the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, legend has it that Constantine's mother Helena discovered the True Cross here.

Assange speculation demands transparency. Opinion ; Noah Feldman An epic fail of find-and-replace highlights that the US Constitution requires that criminal trials be open to the public. We're confident you'll enjoy teaching our AS and A-level History specification and that it will enable your students to show what they can do.

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