The Medicalization of Pregnancy and Childbirth The medicalization of pregnancy and childbirth first began appearing in the 19th century and is now a dominant way of perceiving processes that were once considered natural. Medicalization is a concept that deals with what is defined as healthy and what is defined as illness in society.
May 11, A qualitative study of 30 women in Scotland, who elected to have a home birth, pointed out that basic choices such as environment, whom is present and how they are cared for, are lacking Edwards, There appears to have been a Medicalisation of pregnancy in responsibility, allowing parents in contemporary society to have more say in how their child is born.
In the National Health Service Acts ofand it states women have the right to a home birth.
However, the National Health Service Act states only that: In their view this further restricted plans to have a more natural, unmedicalised birth Edwards, Additionally, the overwhelming sense of routine procedures, which appeared to be requirements, were often unnecessary and painful Edwards, Sally Macintyre distinguishes four main types of childbirth, according to their sociological approaches: Anthropology — the relationship between managing childbirth and cultural belief systems.
Patient- orientated — looking at the perspectives of the users of maternity services. The effect has left the control of care to professionals, rather than the pregnant and labouring women.
This results in poorer societies struggling to keep up with demand for improved health services and the access to alternative medical processes. Postnatal care directly after labour requires hours or sometimes several days in hospital under medical supervision.
Following an ethnographic study in maternity units, Dykes explored the organisational culture between midwives and the women they were there to support.
The shift length and rota also seemed ineffectual at providing adequate rest or work life balance for the staff Dykes, Following the case study of Edwardsit highlights the difficulty made for women when trying to have autonomy in making their own decisions in childbirth.
Interestingly, postnatal care is largely neglected with many women receiving poor support and help with their new-borns.
Emotions in Midwifery and Reproduction. And Does It Really Matter? National Health Service Act. Accessed on 10th May Martin Robertson and Company Ltd. The Case of Birth Practices.
V edsWomen, Health and Healing: Toward a New Perspective. In Davis Floyd, R. E and SargentC. Cross Cultural Perspectives pp. University of California Press. The Society for Social History of Medicine.How to nominate and vote for your favorite baby gear so it can be named a winner Mom Must-Have Award · 6 Days Sooner- Learn More.
The medicalization of childbirth is in most cases extremely necessary. Since the medicalization of pregnancy in the early 's, the infant mortality rate has .
The extent of medicalisation in Spain is reflected in some of the highest caesarean section rates in Europe (% in Catalonia with a 40% increase over five years); obstetricians have been criticised for not allowing women to participate in decisions about their maternity care Long term morbidity after childbirth can be substantial,12 and this is particularly related to instrumental and caesarean delivery.
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Pregnancy is the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo or fetus, in a woman's uterus.
It is the common name for gestation in humans. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one embryo or fetus in a single pregnancy, such as with twins.
Childbirth usually occurs about 38 weeks after conception; in women who have a menstrual cycle length of four weeks, this is . By the 17th century, pregnancy and birth became a point of interest by the emerging medical community, starting what is now coined as the ‘medicalization of childbirth.’ By the early 20th century, most births, normal and complicated, became medicalized in developed countries.