In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level—that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels:
The transcriptions made during the Tang Dynasty are particularly valuable, as the then-popular Tantra sect required its mantras to be rendered very carefully into Chinese characters, since they were thought to lose their efficacy if their exact sounds were not properly uttered.
The History of Liao contains a list of Khitan words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters. The History of Jin contains a list of Jurchen words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters. During the Qing dynasty some bilingual Chinese-Manchu dictionaries had the Manchu words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters.
The histories were in fact hastily compiled and suffered from inaccurate and inconsistent phonetic transcriptions of the same names.
Qianlong identified the Solon language with the Khitan, the Manchu language with the Jurchen, and the Mongolian language with the Mongolian.
However the Khitan language has now been found by modern linguists to be a Mongolic language and is unrelated to the Solon language. The project was part of the Siku Quanshu. A learned committee, consisting of Chinese, Manchus, Mongols, western Mohammedans, etc. These savants in their reformatory zeal, proceeded on the idea, that all the proper names had been incorrectly rendered in the official documents of the Mongols, and had to be changed.
They pronounced the same verdict with respect to the histories of the Liao and the Kin.
For further particulars, compare my Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers, p. By this way of corrupting the names of the original historios, which have generally rendered foreign sounds as correctly as the Chinese language permits, the K'ien-lung editions of these works have become completely unserviceable for historical and geographical investigations.
K'ien-lung was very proud of the happy idea of metamorphosing the ancient proper names, and issued an edict, that in future no Chinese scholar should dare to use the ancient names.
After the three histories had been corrupted, K'ien-lung ordered the same committee to explain the meanings of the new names; and this gave rise to a new work entitled: The original spelling of the name however is always given, and the chapters are indicated where the name occurs.
This renders the vocabulary very useful for reference, and we may lay aside the fact, that the principal object in view of the learned committee, was the absurd explanation of the meaning of the newly-invented names.
I may give a few examples of the sagacity these savants displayed in their etymological commentaries. This edition is not difficult of purchase, and I fancy it is the only edition of the Yuan shi found in European libraries.
The numerous translations from the "Mongol history," found in Pauthier's M. Polo, have all been made from this corrupted text. The old sinologues knew only an extract of the great "Mongol History". The title Kalif rendered Ha-li-fu was changed by the Committee into Farkha and is explained as being "a village in Manchuria.
They include not only transcriptions of proper nouns but also those of common nouns for new products. Many of these phonemic loans proved to be fads, however, and popular usage and linguistic reformers subsequently favored calques or neologisms in their place.
Sound and meaning[ edit ] See also: Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese A transcription into Chinese characters can sometimes be a phono-semantic matchingi.Phoenician Alphabet, Mother of Modern Writing ; Phoenician script was the alphabet used for transliterating the Holy Bible in Hebrew.; Evolution of Phoenician into Latin/Western scripts and Arabic/Eastern scripts.
Get your own Chinese name based on your English name and find out your sign in the Chinese Zodiac! Simply type in your first and last name, select what kind of characteristics you want to be expressed in the name, select your gender, enter your birthdate and press "Get a Name!".
Notes -- Please read! I really do mean Mandarin names. I don't actually know much about other forms of Chinese, and for this reason I should give An introduction to Chinese and Chinese names.
Symbols were selected based on their visual similarity to corresponding English alphabet letters. Only real Chinese characters are used. Only characters that are positive or neutral in meaning are included. For common English names, a dictionary lookup of about 4, English names is used.
For other names, a learned substitution model trained on these names is applied instead. This method is very similar to the Transformation-Based Learner (TBL) invented by Eric Brill.
Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese webkandii.comription is distinct from translation into Chinese whereby the meaning of a foreign word is communicated in Chinese.
Since, in mainland China and often in Taiwan, Hanyu Pinyin is now used to transcribe Chinese into a modified.