Conflicts and christianity influence inmakuyu and

Adriaan van Klinken Published in Emma Mason ed.

Conflicts and christianity influence inmakuyu and

Large majorities say they belong to one of these faiths, and, in sharp contrast with Europe and the United States, very few people are religiously unaffiliated. Despite the dominance of Christianity and Islam, traditional African religious beliefs and practices have not disappeared.

Rather, they coexist with Islam and Conflicts and christianity influence inmakuyu and. Large numbers of Africans actively participate in Christianity or Islam yet also believe in witchcraft, evil spirits, sacrifices to ancestors, traditional religious healers, reincarnation and other elements of traditional African religions.

Introduction: Towards a Religion of World Politics?

Many Christians and Muslims in sub-Saharan Africa describe members of the other faith as tolerant and honest. In most countries, relatively few see evidence of widespread anti-Muslim or anti-Christian hostility, and on the whole they give their governments high marks for treating both religious groups fairly.

Muslims are significantly more positive in their assessment of Christians than Christians are in their assessment of Muslims. There are few significant gaps, however, in the degree of support among Christians and Muslims for democracy.

Conflicts and christianity influence inmakuyu and

Regardless of their faith, most sub-Saharan Africans say they favor democracy and think it is a good thing that people from other religions are able to practice their faith freely. At the same time, there is substantial backing among Muslims and Christians alike for government based on either the Bible or sharia law, and considerable support among Muslims for the imposition of severe punishments such as stoning people who commit adultery.

For additional details, see the survey methodology PDF. The countries were selected to span this vast geographical region and to reflect different colonial histories, linguistic backgrounds and religious compositions.

In total, the countries surveyed contain three-quarters of the total population of sub-Saharan Africa.

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Other Findings In addition, the nation survey finds: Africans generally rank unemployment, crime and corruption as bigger problems than religious conflict.

However, substantial numbers of people including nearly six-in-ten Nigerians and Rwandans say religious conflict is a very big problem in their country. The degree of concern about religious conflict varies from country to country but tracks closely with the degree of concern about ethnic conflict in many countries, suggesting that they are often related.

Many Africans are concerned about religious extremism, including within their own faith. Indeed, many Muslims say they are more concerned about Muslim extremism than about Christian extremism, and Christians in four countries say they are more concerned about Christian extremism than about Muslim extremism.

Neither Christianity nor Islam is growing significantly in sub-Saharan Africa at the expense of the other; there is virtually no net change in either direction through religious switching. In most countries, at least half of Muslims say that women should not have the right to decide whether to wear a veil, saying instead that the decision should be up to society as a whole.

Circumcision of girls female genital cutting is highest in the predominantly Muslim countries of Mali and Djibouti but is more common among Christians than among Muslims in Uganda.

Majorities in almost every country say that Western music, movies and television have harmed morality in their nation.

Yet majorities in most countries also say they personally like Western entertainment. In most countries, more than half of Christians believe in the prosperity gospel — that God will grant wealth and good health to people who have enough faith.

By comparison with people in many other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africans are much more optimistic that their lives will change for the better. Adherence to Islam and Christianity Large majorities in all the countries surveyed say they believe in one God and in heaven and hell, and large numbers of Christians and Muslims alike believe in the literal truth of their scriptures either the Bible or the Koran.

Most people also say they attend worship services at least once a week, pray every day in the case of Muslims, generally five times a dayfast during the holy periods of Ramadan or Lent, and give religious alms tithing for Christians, zakat for Muslims; see the glossary of terms for more information about tithing and zakat.

Indeed, sub-Saharan Africa is clearly among the most religious places in the world. In many countries across the continent, roughly nine-in-ten people or more say religion is very important in their lives.

Conflicts and christianity influence inmakuyu and

By this key measure, even the least religiously inclined nations in the region score higher than the United States, which is among the most religious of the advanced industrial countries. Persistence of Traditional African Religious Practices At the same time, many of those who indicate they are deeply committed to the practice of Christianity or Islam also incorporate elements of African traditional religions into their daily lives.

For example, in four countries Tanzania, Mali, Senegal and South Africa more than half the people surveyed believe that sacrifices to ancestors or spirits can protect them from harm. Sizable percentages of both Christians and Muslims — a quarter or more in many countries — say they believe in the protective power of juju charms or amulets.

Many people also say they consult traditional religious healers when someone in their household is sick, and sizable minorities in several countries keep sacred objects such as animal skins and skulls in their homes and participate in ceremonies to honor their ancestors.

And although relatively few people today identify themselves primarily as followers of a traditional African religion, many people in several countries say they have relatives who identify with these traditional faiths. African Traditional Religions Handed down over generations, indigenous African religions have no formal creeds or sacred texts comparable to the Bible or Koran.

They find expression, instead, in oral traditions, myths, rituals, festivals, shrines, art and symbols. In the past, Westerners sometimes described them as animism, paganism, ancestor worship or simply superstition, but today scholars acknowledge the existence of sophisticated African traditional religions whose primary role is to provide for human well-being in the present as opposed to offering salvation in a future world.The age-old conflict between Makuyu and Makeno concerns the question on what side of the river Gĩkũyũ and Mumbi stood when Murungu showed them the land, and related to that, which of the two villages can claim spiritual superiority and leadership.

The influence of Christianity on the Western countries Western Culture refers to the culture that has developed in the western world, while traditional western culture is said to have been created by three main historical factors: Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, and Christianity.

Impact of Colonialism in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s The River Between Ngugi wa Thiong’o is one of the remarkable African novelists. He is an out spoken critic of the colonial rule, Christianity and also the post-colonial abuses of Kenyan authorities. His works remain relevant to present-day-Kenya, illuminating many of the countries underlying.

The influence of Christianity on the Western countries Western Culture refers to the culture that has developed in the western world, while traditional western culture is said to have been created by three main historical factors: Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, and Christianity.

W hat is the difference between the villages of Makuyu and Kameno? How does the landscape and setting of the book influence the plot and the characters? (think about the natural metaphors used to describe the tribes, and the use of natural phenomenon - like rain - %(1).

The novel, The River Between, which written by Nationalizing focuses on one side on the tribal conflict and division between two Kenya villages,Makeup and Kimono, In which they’re In opposite sides and separated by the Honda River, and the Impact of the white settlers, Europeans settlers,and the Christian missionaries on.

Religion and Conflict - Luc Reychler