References References  Adke, S. A birth, death, and diffusion process. Random Fields and Geometry. Springer Monographs in Mathematics.
EA[ edit ] The EA series of internal combustion engines was introduced in the mids in the Audi 50and shortly after in the original Volkswagen Polo. It is a series of water-cooled inline three- and inline four-cylinder petrol and diesel enginesin a variety of displacement sizes.
This overhead camshaft engine features a crossflow cylinder head design. The camshaft is driven by a toothed belt from the crankshaft, this belt also provides the drive for an intermediate shaft that internally operates the oil pump and ignition distributor.
Other "V" belt driven accessories are the water cooling pump, alternator and if fitted power steering. In transverse mount configuration the exhaust side is towards the vehicle firewall, in longitudinal configuration the exhaust side is to the right as you face front in either left or right hand drive vehicles.
The installation position of the engines has also been optimised. Just as in the diesels, the petrol engines are now mounted with the exhaust side facing backwards and tilted at an angle of 12 degrees.
The crankshaft alone became lighter by 20 per cent; the connecting rods lost 30 per cent of their weight.
In addition the connecting rod bearing journals are now hollow-drilled and pistons now come with flat bottoms, all of them optimized for lower weight. Regarding thermal management, the EA petrol engine is equipped with a modern dual-circuit cooling system.
That means that a high temperature circuit with a mechanically driven cooling pump cools the basic engine, while a low temperature circuit flows through the intercooler and the turbo-charger casing. The cylinder-head circuit heats the cabin's interior.
The exhaust manifold is integrated into the cylinder head, enabling the engine to warm up more quickly, in turn making heat available quickly for the passenger cabin.
At high loads, the exhaust is cooled by the coolant, lowering fuel consumption. It includes steel cylinder liners, balancer shaft located within the vee, maximum compression ratio of The EA family is an Audi-designed unit that features some of the latest engine technology such as direct fuel injection, sintered camshaft lobes, thin-walled engine block, variable valve timing and lift for intake and exhaust valves, downstream oxygen sensors, exhaust manifold integrated into cylinder head, exhaust gas recirculation and cooling, distributorless coil-on-plug ignition, lightweight engine internals, slide valve thermostat some variantsand the addition of port fuel injection to aid low load fuel consumption and cold start emissions.
The port fuel injection also aids in reducing the potential carbon deposits that can occur in direct injected engines. As ofthe 'dual injection' system has not been offered in North American markets.
Still, Volkswagen has made numerous enhancements to their engine designs such as the positive crankcase ventilation, repositioning injectors and more to lessen the potential that carbon deposits accumulate on intake valves. Currently, the EA engine is available in two sizes: Furthermore, the R would be able to accelerate from in just 3.
This section is about current three-cylinder petrol engines, for discontinued three-cylinder petrol engines, see list of discontinued Volkswagen Group petrol engines Three cylinder EA petrols 1.Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol.
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