Apush 1790s

The Southern Argument for Slavery Southern slaveholders often used biblical passages to justify slavery.

Apush 1790s

Teach US History Aspects of the Changing Status of New England Women, The present discussion will focus on aspects of women's life chiefly outside the home, an area frequently ignored by historians and sociologists who generally subsume women under the general category of "women and the family," or some similar topical definition that equates the human female with maternal and wifely functions alone.

There is evidence, I believe, for pointing out a significant change in attitudes toward Apush 1790s during this period, a change that had an impact on their roles both within and outside the home. To put it too simply, for attitude changes of such profundity are never simple, Americans and New Englanders of the middle class shifted from viewing women functionally to viewing them sentimentally and ornamentally.

New England was particularly affected by this shift because of the developing surplus of women in the general population, I think unfortunately census figures are not at hand, but a look at early 19th century statistics will bear this statement out, especially in long-settled areas of the eastern and southern portions of the region.

To amplify the argument, colonial New England women were regarded as active agents in the domestic economy. It must be remembered that throughout the colonial period and much of the 19th century, the American economy, for the most part, centered on the rural household, whether large plantation or individual farm.

The South, Slavery, and Cotton 's - 's timeline | Timetoast timelines

The household was a basic unit combining production and consumption, and woman occupied a central role in this economy, working generally in or near the house at the fire, with her needle or spinning wheel, her Apush 1790s and the implements of child-rearing.

She worked outside too, at the well, in the kitchen and herb gardens, and often in the poultry yard. Her role was functional and necessary to the economy's functioning, just as was her husband's role in the field, or in a craft, or at a mercantile or maritime occupation.

In the rural domestic economy, although a general division of labor existed on a sexual basis, much overlapping of function occurred.

Apush 1790s

Women engaged in many trades, acted as midwives and prescribed medicine, even worked in the fields when emergencies developed. The Freeman Farm at Old Sturbridge Village embodies the essential elements of the self-sufficient domestic economy in a rural setting.

Ms. Krall / Period 3: –

The functional attitude toward women is well represented in a small volume of advice by Cotton Mather, Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion, or the Character and Happiness of a Virtuous Woman While piety should be woman's chief aim, Mather emphasized numerous practical efforts at which she should excell: Such is her Industry, that she betimes herself to learn all the Affairs of Housewifry, and besides a good skill at her Needle, as well as in the Kitchen, she acquaints herself with Arithmetic and Accomptanship [perhaps also Chirurgery] and such other Arts relating to Business, as may enable her to do the Man whom she may hereafter have, Good and not Evil all the days of her life.

If she have any Time after this to learn Musick and Language, she will not loose her time, and yet she will not be proud of her Skill. But the alternatives open to women seem to have diminished as the economy matured.

A number of changes in economic and professional life took place in the late 18th and early 19th centuries: As industrialization proceeded many women's tasks were removed from the household into large factories, and men and women alike shifted their employment away from the domestic environment, separating the processes of production and consumption.

Overriding these institutional changes, however, was a major change in attitudes toward women, emphasizing a "feminine mystique" which defined the female role in sentimental terms and supported the total separation of men's and women's economic and social roles.

Sentimentality dictated that women should be governed by feelings, exaggerated, even grotesque emotions of love, pity, grief, and other but never hatred. The new view emphasized women's physical weakness and moral strength: The middle classes who could afford to dispense with her productive labor deemphasized woman's economic role, insisting that the "genteel female" should be ornamental, guided by her emotions, oriented toward family and religion.

Ideally the women who responded to these attitudes would not dare to be drawn from their households, yet by a curious paradox the attitudes themselves and circumstances of the times combined to open new opportunities for women's non-domestic roles.

At the apex of woman's status was her duty of moral guardianship. Sentimentality put her on a pedestal and constructed its base of purity and moral superiority, emphasizing the double moral standard man could stoop to infidelity, woman was too good for such base interestswoman's role in protecting the home and making it an island of quiet, a haven of purity in man's rough world of affairs.

Quantities of popular literature reflected these attitudes toward women: Hear Catherine Beecher herself cheated out of motherhood by the tragic death of her fiance crying out in behalf of mother: Oh, sacred and beautiful name!

How many cares and responsibilities are connected with it! And yet what noble anticipations, what sublime hopes, are given to animate and cheer! She is to train young minds, whose plastic texture will receive and retain each impress for eternal ages.

No imperial queen ever stood in a more sublime and responsible position, than that which every mother must occupy. How this new affection seems to spread a soft, fresh green over the soul. Does not the whole heart blossom thick with plants of hope, sparkling with perpetual dew-drops?.

Never before have I been so blest, as to nurture the infant, when as a germ quicked by Spring, it opens the folding-doors of its little heart, and puts forth the thought, the preference, the affection, like filmy radicles, or timid tendrils, seeking where to twine.

Were such effusions at all relevant or of any value to farm wives with eight children or to mill operatives who had to be more concerned with keeping their hour-a-day jobs than wondering about the "folding-doors" of the infant's heart?

The prevalence of sentimentality in popular literature during the period is suggestive of attitudes, yet it does not demonstrate how these attitudes were manifested, or even whether their impact penetrated widely.

Simply because prose and poetry became suffused with sentiment one cannot conclude that sentimental attitudes toward women replaced functional attitudes on a large scale, or that they had any practical application. In fact, evidence is insufficient to show conclusively that most New England women responded to the new attitudes.

Sentimental views probably had direct impact on a minority of New England women but they presented an ideal to which many aspired.4 APUSH Unit 3 APUSH Unit 3 5 Unit 3 Key Concepts Key Concept Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new con!icts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a .

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