By Shane Duquette November 11, 5.
Short half-life corresponds to high reactivity.
The one nanosecond half-life of the hydroxyl radical indicates that it is so reactive that it reacts with the first molecule it bumps into. Ascorbate forms H2O2 on autoxidation direct combination with oxygen.
Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids exposed to oxygen leads to rancidity in foods. In living animal cells peroxidized membranes lose their permeability, becoming rigid, reactive and nonfunctional.
Lipid peroxidation can produce singlet oxygen, hydroperoxides and lipid epoxides. MDA is a major metabolite of arachidonic acid Aldehyde-bridge formation leads to the protein-protein cross-linking associated with lipofuscin formation.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are more vulnerable to free radical oxidation than any other macromolecules in the body — and the sensitivity to free radical damage increases exponentially with the number of double bonds.
Animal cells contain three important enzymes to deal with the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide: A dismutase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of two identical molecules to produce molecules in different oxidative states.
In the absense of SOD, two superoxide ions can spontaneously dismutate to produce hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen. SOD catalyzes a reaction between two superoxide ions to produce hydrogen peroxide and triplet oxygen. CAT is present in membrane-limited organelles known as peroxisomes.
Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of the amino acids cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutathione is the major antioxidant in the non-lipid portion of cells most of the cytoplasm. Reduced glutathione hydrogen donation can neutralize a hydroxyl radical: The elimination of hydrogen peroxide by glutathione can be written as the reaction: The liver, in particular, is very high in SOD.
Cellular concentration of SOD relative to metabolic activity is a very good lifespan predictor of animal species. Most mammals experience a lifetime energy expenditure ofcalories per gram, but humans have an amazingcalories per gram.
Humans have the highest levels of SOD — relative to metabolic rate — of all species studied. Oxidative damage to DNA is ten times greater in rats than in humans. Superoxide dismutase without glutathione peroxidase or catalase CAT to remove hydrogen peroxide is of little value.Actions and Effects of Creatine Essays: Over , Actions and Effects of Creatine Essays, Actions and Effects of Creatine Term Papers, Actions and Effects of Creatine Research Paper, Book Reports.
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Free essay on Actions and Effects of Creatine available totally free at webkandii.com, the largest free essay community. A % chance of detecting the effect. VoI. For background on value of information calculations, see the Adderall calculation.. Cost of fish oil: The price is not as good as multivitamins or melatonin.
The studies showing effects generally use pretty high dosages, g daily.
The effect of creatine supplementation on muscle development The aim of this section is to attempt and explain the structural changes that take place after creatine supplementation that facilitate the improvement in muscle performance shown in the aforementioned studies.